Pompeu Fabra University
| Participants: || 13 |
| Type of Study: || written |
| Location: || Spain |
| Media type: || writing samples |
| DOI: || doi:10.21415/T57389 |
Menéndez, B. 2010. Cross-modal bilingualism: language contact as
evidence of linguistic transfer in sign bilingual education.
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Vol 13,
Issue 2: Deafness and Bilingual Education (201-223). Routledge: Taylor &
Menéndez, B. 2012. Caracterización psicolingüística de la interlengua
de alumnos sordos multilingües/multimodales en su acceso al castellano
como lengua escrita. Monografías MarcoELE Issue 15: Estudios
sobre el aprendizaje y adquisición de lenguas en sus contextos.
In accordance with TalkBank rules, any use of data from this corpus
must be accompanied by at least one of the above references.
Cross-modal multilingualism is here portrayed as a highly sophisticated
multilingual acquisition process involving a set of deaf students
simultaneously acquiring multiple languages. Two language modalities are
implied in the process: audio-oral (English, Spanish and Catalan) and
visual-gestural (Catalan Sign Language). This corpus includes the
analysis of the English, Spanish and Catalan writings of 13 deaf
participants whose first language was Catalan Sign Language (LSC). The
intention was to categorize divergences and establish their possible
origin in cross-linguistic association, developmental reasons or a
combination of both. CHILDES analysis was here used for computing
divergences. The measure used to analyze performance was divergences per
100 words , which accounted for length difference in writings.
Participants, as summarized in this table
had writing divergences which were classified according to their possible
origin using this coding system.
The following hypothesis were being tested:
In order to avoid oversimplifications from previous studies diminishing the importance of transfer,
both developmental and transfer divergences were computed at their maximum span as the sum of
1, 2, 8, 9 and 10 in the coding system.
The following general principles were used to interpret the texts during the analysis:
- Cross-modal language contact or cross-linguistic transfer is
possible. To what extent? What is the measure of the potential
importance of this cognitive process relying on association?
- Language transfer decreases over time: Is transfer less present in
the English writings (L3) than in Spanish and Catalan (L2.2/L2.2)?
- Language is sensitive to atmospheric circumstantial variables and
initial conditions, being an emergent bottom-up complex dynamic system
rising out of socio-cultural interactions rather than an innate top-down
static universal process.
- The following atmospheric circumstances and/or initial conditions
are relevant for linguistic development: L2, relevant hearing rests,
deaf parenting, deafness type (severe/profound), years of Catalan Sign
Language pre-high-schooling, motivation, sex, age of exposure to any L1.
- A text grammar or pragmatic interpretation principle, meaning texts
were interpreted and analyzed at a textual and paragraph level,
following theme/rheme topic development and cohesion, coherence and
adequacy standards at both micro and macro structural levels.
- A story grammar principle, where texts were interpreted separated
into at least three main paragraphs (beginning, middle, end) –even if
unlike students productions.
- Both text and story grammar principles were applied for analyzing
inter- and intra-sentence connection. Analysis regarding information
structure, syntactic complexity and content synthesis took into account
participants’ punctuation and lack thereof for utterance and paragraph
- A text restoration principle, meaning where more than one
interpretation was possible at an equally reliable level, the one adding
less divergence marks was chosen.
- A divergence perceptional principle, meaning when more than one
divergence was present, all of them were marked in a cumulative manner,
except for complex verb structures which were interpreted as a whole
regarding inflectional morphemes or omission thereof, verb replacements
whereby morphemes of the mistargeted verb were considered, and also in
the case of adequate code switches.